The “who stole from whom” on Microsoft vs. Apple UI discussion seem to renew again with the release of Windows Vista and the upcoming release of OS X 10.5 “Leopard”. With implementation of hardware destkop acceleration in Linux (thanks to Beryl/Compiz project) overall mess has only increased, so some freaks even state that Apple “stole” cube effect from Linux (sic!).
Fortunately, we have internet, books and other media to help us find the truth out.
As you may already know, today’s GUI is a far offspring of Star UI developped by Xerox PARC. That’s it: during the 70th, PARC used to be a blacksmith of what we now call “graphical user interfaces”. Nevertheless, with Xerox losing interest to its own computers and concentrating on copier machines people started leaving.
If you try to trace biographies of some of PARC’s leading UI researches you’ll also ind out that many of them used to work in Apple as well. This looks familiar, right? Apple not only managed to get some of the best designers in the industry, but also got rights to use some graphical interfaces already created by Xerox.
So, what does Microsoft have to do with all this? The thing is that Apple has licensed Microsoft some of its UI in return for some investments and the promise to continue development of the Office suite for Mac.
So, Apple made it first. But even before Apple there was PARC. Microsoft “lent” some ideas from Apple and often had a “catching” role. But if you think Microsoft is researchers are only working with photocopiers and steal Apple GUI (I’m not talking on Linux as in general it has brought nothing new into the UI world) try to look at this page 😉
Some references you may find useful:
- Microsoft, Apple and Xerox
- MS to invest $150 million in Apple
- Microsoft-Apple contract
- Apple vs. Microsoft GUI lawsuit
- Sorting out fact from fiction in the Apple-Microsoft lawsuit
- A history of Apple’s Lisa
To anyone having interest in the history of graphical interfaces let me recommend some interesting reading sources:
http://www.designinginteractions.com/ Site, dedicated to a book with the same name, “Designing Interactions”. Even though somechapters are available for free I do strongly recommend buying the book itself. Some of its most interesting parts cover the history of the very first computers’ creation, the appearance of the Desktop metaphor and interviews with people benind these wonderful inventions.
http://www.guidebookgallery.org/ – a visual guide to the history of modern operating systems. Ever wanted to compare interfaces of Apple II and Windows 1.0? Go and try it yourself. Must be bookmarked by any GUI